Texture measurement is done
in most cases by measuring pole figures. A pole figure Phkl describes
the volume fraction dV / V of the crystallites whose crystallographic
directions <hkl> have a certain orientation in space.
dV / V = Phkl (a,
b) sin a da db
A pole figure is given
graphically as a frequency distribution on the reference sphere or is
stereographically projected into the "equator" plane in sample space.
a pole figure and its stereographic projection
The TEM as an automated
pole figures by post-specimen beam deflection,
for the ellipticity of diffraction rings.
F.J. Humphreys: Textures and Microstructures
experimental on-line intensity correction for
SAD pole figures in pre- and post-specimen
beam deflection mode.
R. Schwarzer: Beitr. Elektronenmikr.
Direktabb. Oberfl. (BEDO) 16(1983)
pole-figure measurement with pre- and
post-specimen beam deflection. On-line
correction for background, absorption,
diffracting volume and ring ellipticity by the
H. Weiland and R. Schwarzer: Proc. ICOTOM 7
R. Schwarzer: BEDO 18(1985) 61-68
R.A. Schwarzer and H. Weiland: in H.J. Bunge
(ed.): Experimental techniques of texture
analysis. DGM Informations-Ges. Oberursel,
measurement on bulk surfaces in the TEM. A
digital CCD camera is used as an area
B. Schńfer and R.A. Schwarzer: Materials
Science Forum 273-275(1998)
1 Ám .... 500
0.1 - 2 mm
5 min for the
acquisition of several pole figures