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    Crystal Texture       


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    A survey of methods for the analysis of microscale texture

    Type of pattern

    Equipment

    Resolution

    Main applications

    spatial

    angular

    Spot pattern

    TEM
    ("SAD" = selected area diffraction)

    0.5 - 1.5 Ám  

    5░ (1░)

    thin foil specimens
    dark-field imaging
    dislocations (weak beam)
    Burgers vector analysis
    precipitates, nanomaterials
    orientation relationships
    (estimate of) crystal orientation

    Transmission Kikuchi pattern
       (TKP)

    TEM
    (SAD)

    0.5 - 1.5 Ám   

    0.2░

    thick foil specimens
    medium size grains
    crystal orientations
    orientation differences
    dislocation density

    TEM, STEM
    ("MBD" = microbeam diffraction)

    < 10 nm  

    0.2░

    thick foil specimens
    fine grain structures
    crystal orientations, ACOM
    orientation differences
    indexing of grain boundaries
    deformed materials
    grain growth

    Backscatter Kikuchi pattern
       (BKP, "EBSP")

    SEM
    with a BKD/EBSD appliance
    (low light level camera, computer control)

    several commercial ACOM ("EBSD") systems available

    < 30 nm
    (FE gun)

    0.05 - 1 Ám
    (W filament)

    < 0.5░

    bulk specimens
    coarse grains, mesostructure
    crystal orientations, ACOM
    dynamic experiments
       (e.g. hot stage, tensile stage)
    fracture surfaces
    (residual stress)
    phase identification (Phase ID)

    Channeling pattern
       (ECP)

    SEM
    (as an option for some SEM commercially available)

    10 - 50 Ám
    (SAD)

    0.5░

    bulk samples
    semiconductors  (gentle method)
    crystal orientation
    orientation differences
    residual stress
    fracture

    TEM pole-figure measurement

    TEM
    with a side-entry goniometer,
    high-resolution camera or computer control

    1 Ám (SAD)
    0.1 mm (RHEED)

     

    thin film specimens (SAD)
    bulk surfaces, layers (RHEED)
    very fine grain structures
    high degree of deformation
    shear bands
    texture fields

    Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction (CBED)
    (Zone axis pattern;
    Kossel-M÷llenstedt pattern)

    TEM
    with coolinge stage,
    energy filter

    5 nm

    0.01░

    inadequate for texture analysis.

    determination of lattice constants
    residual stress
    phase identification
    space groups
    structure potentials

    X-ray diffraction
    X-ray scanning apparatus

    Euler cradle, x-y stage
    and ED detector
    an ED detector
    and ED (or PS) detector

    0.1 mm
    50 Ám
    50 Ám
    0.1 mm

     

    local pole figures
    texture mapping
    element mapping (micro XRFA)
    lattice strain mapping

    ______________
       Download  R.A. Schwarzer: Advances in the analysis of texture and microstructure. Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 50 (2005) 7-20

     


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