Logo Texture Analysis

Crystal Texture    

 

A survey of methods for the analysis of microscale texture
 

Type of pattern

Equipment

Resolution

Main applications

spatial

angular

Spot pattern

TEM
("SAD" = selected area diffraction)

0.5 - 1.5 μm  

5° (1°)

thin foil specimens
dark-field imaging
dislocations (weak beam)
Burgers vector analysis
precipitates, nanomaterials
orientation relationships
(estimate of) crystal orientation

Transmission Kikuchi pattern
   (TKP)

TEM
(SAD)

0.5 - 1.5 μm   

0.2°

thick foil specimens
medium size grains
crystal orientations
orientation differences
dislocation density

TEM, STEM
("MBD" = microbeam diffraction)

< 10 nm  

0.2°

thick foil specimens
fine grain structures
crystal orientations, ACOM
orientation differences
indexing of grain boundaries
deformed materials
grain growth

Backscatter Kikuchi pattern
   (BKP, "EBSP")

SEM
with a BKD/EBSD appliance
(low light level camera, computer control)

several commercial ACOM ("EBSD") systems available

< 30 nm
(FE gun)

0.05 - 1 μm
(W filament)

< 0.5°

bulk specimens
coarse grains, mesostructure
crystal orientations, ACOM
dynamic experiments
   (e.g. hot stage, tensile stage)
fracture surfaces
(residual stress)
phase identification (Phase ID)

Channeling pattern
   (ECP)

SEM
(as an option for some SEM commercially available)

10 - 50 μm
(SAD)

0.5°

bulk samples
semiconductors  (gentle method)
crystal orientation
orientation differences
residual stress
fracture

TEM pole-figure measurement

TEM
with a side-entry goniometer,
high-resolution camera or computer control

1 μm (SAD)
0.1 mm (RHEED)

 

thin film specimens (SAD)
bulk surfaces, layers (RHEED)
very fine grain structures
high degree of deformation
shear bands
texture fields

Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction (CBED)
(Zone axis pattern;
Kossel-Möllenstedt pattern)

TEM
with cooling stage,
energy filter

5 nm

0.01°

inadequate for texture analysis.

determination of lattice constants
residual stress
phase identification
space groups
structure potentials

X-ray diffraction
X-ray scanning apparatus

Euler cradle, x-y stage
and ED detector
an ED detector
and ED (or PS) detector

0.1 mm
50 μm
50 μm
0.1 mm

 

local pole figures
texture mapping
element mapping (micro XRFA)
lattice strain mapping

______________
Download pdf icon  R.A. Schwarzer: Advances in the analysis of texture and microstructure. Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 50 (2005) 7-20